Head And Neck Cancer

Gynaecologic Oncology is a subspecialty of Obstetrics and Gynecology that focuses on diagnosing and treating women with cancers of the reproductive system. Cancers can occur in any part of the female reproductive system the vulva, vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes, or ovaries. These cancers are called gynaecologic cancers. Each woman with gynaecological cancer has unique medical and emotional needs.

Types of Cancer
Uterine Cancer

Uterine cancer, also known as endometrial carcinoma, is the abnormal (malignant) growth of cells that comprise uterine tissue. Currently, we are seeing a rising incidence in endometrial carcinoma cases. Almost 75 per cent of these cancers develop in postmenopausal women, with < 5 per cent of cancers seen in women under 40 years of age.

Symptoms of Uterine Cancer
  • Abnormal vaginal bleeding
  • Increases vaginal discharge
  • Postmenopausal bleeds
  • Pelvic pain
Risk Factor of Uterine Cancer
  • Obesity
  • Diabetes/hypertension
  • Nulliparity (women who never had children)
  • Late menopause (menopause after 55 years)
  • Polycystic ovarian syndrome
  • Tamoxifen treatment for longer duration
  • Family history and lynch syndrome
Stages of Uterine Cancer
  • Stage I: Cancer is confined to the uterus, 70-80 per cent of uterine cancers are diagnosed in Stage I
  • Stage II/III: Cancer has spread outside of the uterus. As it progresses, it may spread to the pelvic lymph nodes and other pelvic organs.
  • Stage IV: Cancer has spread to the lymph nodes and on to the lungs, liver, bones, brain, and vagina
Cervical Cancer

Cervical cancer is a malignant tumour of the cervix, the lowermost part of the uterus. India contributes almost one-third of new cases diagnosed worldwide, and unfortunately 70-90 per cent of cases are diagnosed at an advanced stage. Cervical cancer is preventable, as there is an effective screening test available to detect precancerous changes that can be treated; thus, progression to cancer can be stopped.

Symptoms of Cervical Cancer
  • Abnormal vaginal bleeding
  • Increased vaginal discharge
  • Bleeding after going through menopause
  • Pelvic pain
Risk Factor of Cervical Cancer
  • Sexual intercourse at an early age
  • Multiple sexual partners
  • Nulliparity (women who never had children)
  • Multiple childbirths
  • Smoking and weakened immune system
Stages of Cervical Cancer
  • Stage I: Cancer has spread from the cervix lining into the deeper tissue but is still just found in the uterus.
  • Stage II: Cancer has spread beyond the cervix to nearby areas, such as the vagina or tissue near the cervix, but it is still inside the pelvic area.
  • Stage III: Cancer has spread outside the cervix and vagina.
  • Stage IV: The cancer has spread to the lungs, liver, spleen, brain,and bone.
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Indigestion and constipation
  • Bloating
  • Family history of cancer
  • Personal history of cance
  • Infertility
  • No breastfeeding
  • Stage I: Cancer is found in one or both ovaries
  • Stage II: Cancer has spread to other parts of the pelvis
  • Stage III: Cancer has spread to the abdomen
  • Stage IV: Cancer is found outside the abdomen